Stem Cell Discovery

08
Oct 2014
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International Stem Cell Awareness Day 2014

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Today marks the Seventh International Stem Cell Awareness Day, an international celebration inaugurated by California Institute of Regenerative Medicine. Scientists and organizations across the globe have an opportunity to raise public awareness of the current state of stem cell research and to share their hopes for the future advances in the field.…

Today marks the Seventh International Stem Cell Awareness Day, an international celebration inaugurated by California Institute of Regenerative Medicine. Scientists and organizations across the globe have an opportunity to raise public awareness of the current state of stem cell research and to share their hopes for the future advances in the field.

The discovery of stem cells in 1961 by Canada’s Dr. James Till and Dr. Ernest McCulloch represented a revolution in the field of health care. Stem cells have the potential to cure diseases, regenerate organs, prevent heart attacks, defeat diabetes and more. Significant progress in research has been made since then: stem cells have been used to treat leukemia, multiple myeloma and other blood cancers. However, much work lies ahead, as most clinical trials are still in their early stages.

Several international events will be taking place today and in the days to come. Click here to find out more.

Ben Paylor, a PhD candidate at the University of British Columbia and the producer of StemCellShorts will be presenting a webinar entitled “The Science of Regenarative Medicine” at 12 pm ET. Click here for details.

And if you want to discover more about stem cells, check some of our resources:

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23
Apr 2014
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pioneers of medicine without a noble prize

Till & McCulloch in brilliant company with other non-Nobel laureates

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Since the first award was handed out in 1901, the Nobel Prize has become globally regarded as the most prestigious recognition of intellectual achievement.…

Since the first award was handed out in 1901, the Nobel Prize has become globally regarded as the most prestigious recognition of intellectual achievement. What’s amazing, however, is how often the Nobel committee has glaringly overlooked researchers behind outstanding discoveries that changed the practice of medicine.

Pioneers of Medicine Without a Nobel Prize, just published by the United Kingdom’s Imperial College Press, tells the stories of giants in medical science who somehow never won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

Among the 15 featured scientists are:
• heart transplant pioneers Drs. Christiaan Barnard and Norman Shumway;
Dr. Richard Doll, who made the link between smoking and lung cancer;
Drs. Inge Edler and Carl Helmuth Hertz, who developed ultrasound technology; and
Dr. Akira Endo, the discoverer of statins.

One chapter of the book, written by the Foundation’s Joe Sornberger, is dedicated to Drs. James Till and Ernest McCulloch, the “fathers of stem cell research.” The two Canadians proved the existence of stem cells in the early 1960s at the Ontario Cancer Institute, while working on the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to radiation in mice.

Dr. Till still remembers the “Eureka” moment, when his partner Dr. McCulloch showed him a piece of graph paper on which he had illustrated that the more marrow cells were transplanted, the more bumps on the spleens appeared. After two years of work, Till and McCulloch showed that the bumps were formed by individual transplanted cells, which had proliferated and given rise to blood-forming cells.

That Dr. Till & McCulloch were somehow overlooked for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is inexplicable to many. As a previous post explained, there was some thought that Dr. Till would be handed his long overdue Nobel Laureate’s wreath two years ago alongside Japan’s Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, who discovered induced pluripotent stem cells. (Dr. McCulloch died in 2011, making him ineligible). Canada has not brought home a Nobel in this category in over 90 years — not since Dr. Frederick Banting, discoverer of insulin, won in 1923.

Then again, when amazing giants such as Drs. Willem Kolff and Belding Scribner, who developed the Renal Haemodialysis, are left off the Nobel list, Drs. Till & McCulloch are in brilliant company.

For those who would like the full story of this amazing Canadian success story, you can purchase a copy of Mr. Sornberger’s book, Dreams & Due Diligence, published by University of Toronto Press, here.

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07
Oct 2013
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Till Capture

Another October, another Nobel oversight

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The news broke Monday that three American scientists – Dr. Thomas Südhof of Stanford, Dr. Randy Schekman of University of California at Berkeley and Dr.

The news broke Monday that three American scientists – Dr. Thomas Südhof of Stanford, Dr. Randy Schekman of University of California at Berkeley and Dr. James Rothman of Yale University have won the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

As the San Jose Mercury explained, the three scientists, working separately, figured out how a cell organizes its internal transportation system, controlling the creation and release of important hormones and enzymes. They showed how this cellular cargo is delivered to the right place at the right time. Breakdowns in this trafficking system lead to neurological diseases, diabetes, immunological disorders and ultimately death.

While the three researchers’ amazing discoveries are to be celebrated as Nobel-worthy, the announcement likely is final proof that the selection committee will never right the grievous wrong of not awarding the most prestigious prize to Canada’s Dr. James Till and Dr. Ernest McCulloch who, in the early 1960s, proved the existence of stem cells – a truly paradigm-shifting moment in medical research.

Every October many Canadian medical scientists hope to see this mistake corrected. Every year they are disappointed.

“Bun” McCulloch’s chance to win is gone: he died two years ago and the Nobel is not awarded posthumously. However, his research partner, Jim Till, is alive and well – no doubt due in large part to the fact he is life-long avid curler – in Toronto.

Many thought that the Till oversight would have been corrected in 2012 when Stockholm decided to award the Nobel to Japan’s Dr. Shinya Yamanaka, who showed how to create induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 (with mice) and 2007 (with humans). However, Dr. Yamanaka’s co-winner last year was the United Kingdom’s Sir John Bertrand Gurdon, for his pioneering work in the late 1950s in nuclear transplantation and cloning. Dr. Till, who could have been the third laureate in a cell-based triple play, was once again left out.

Canada, in fact, has not won a Nobel Prize in Medicine since Sir Frederick Banting captured the prize (with Scotland’s J.J.R. Macleod) in 1923 for discovering insulin. Canadian-born medical researchers who did their work elsewhere have won during that nine-decade Nobel drought, but no native son or daughter who did their groundbreaking work in Canada has made the trip to Sweden for the acceptance ceremony.

We have, of course, won in other categories. For example, the late Dr. Michael Smith, a British-born Canadian, won the Nobel for Chemistry in 1993 for his efforts in developing site-directed mutagenesis. But the Physiology and Medicine prize? Nothing in 90 years.

It is not merely Canadians who, every October, can’t comprehend this oversight. Dr. David Scadden, who co-founded and co-directs the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, has said he can’t fathom why Till and McCulloch were overlooked, noting that, “Till and McCulloch clearly are giants. They clearly paved the way and made this whole field (of stem cells).”

But while it would be enough to give the True North an inferiority complex, the simple truth is many giants in medical research have been overlooked by the Nobel selection committee.  A book due for publication later this year or in early 2014 tells the stories of more than a dozen such titans from around the world who  got the cold shoulder. Pioneers of Medicine Without a Nobel Prize, to be published by Imperial College Press, includes chapters on Sir Archibald E. Garrod, the founding father of biochemical genetics, Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll, who linked smoking and lung cancer, Dr. Albert Sabin, who developed an oral polio vaccine, and heart transplant pioneers Drs. Christiaan Barnard and Norman Shumway. Also featured are Drs. Inge Edler and Hellmuth Hertz, for their development of ultrasound for clinical use, Drs. Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen, who came up with recombinant DNA, and Dr. Akira Endo, who discovered statins.

It will, of course, include a chapter on Till and McCulloch.

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