Solid tumour cancers

04
Feb 2015
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‘Cancer is not beyond us’

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Today is World Cancer Day. Under the tagline “Not beyond us,” the campaign’s goal is to raise awareness about the leading cause of death in Canada.…

Today is World Cancer Day. Under the tagline “Not beyond us,” the campaign’s goal is to raise awareness about the leading cause of death in Canada. Cancer is responsible for 30% of all deaths.

This year’s global campaign encourages prevention, early detection, treatment and care. Its message is a simple one: solutions to fight cancer are within our reach.

Stem cells represent a valid treatment option for certain types of blood cancers and solid tumours, and there is hope that more stem cell therapies for cancer will be available in the near future.blood

Canadian scientists are at the forefront of cancer research.  One of the major contributions to the field comes from Dr. John Dick, senior scientist at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and the McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine in Toronto. He was the first to isolate cancer stem cells — in leukemia in 1994 and in colon cancer in 2007. Recently, he and his team found a way to disarm a gene called BMI-1 that regulates colorectal cancer stem cells.

But there is potential to do more. The Canadian Stem Cell Strategy & Action Plan, could lead to novel treatments for cancer. In fact, the goal of the Strategy is for Canada to lead the way in delivering five to 10 safe and effective treatments for chronic diseases within 10 years.

By making stem cell research a national priority Canada has the potential to show that cancer is “not beyond us.”

 

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06
Jan 2015
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Researchers find many cancers are ‘bad luck’

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Credit: C. Tomasetti, B. Vogelstein and illustrator Elizabeth Cook, Johns Hopkins

We all know that unhealthy lifestyles and genetics increase the risk of developing cancer, but a new study suggests that hereditary or environmental factors are not the primary cause of two-thirds of cancer types.…

Credit: C. Tomasetti, B. Vogelstein and illustrator Elizabeth Cook, Johns Hopkins

Credit: C. Tomasetti, B. Vogelstein and illustrator Elizabeth Cook, Johns Hopkins

We all know that unhealthy lifestyles and genetics increase the risk of developing cancer, but a new study suggests that hereditary or environmental factors are not the primary cause of two-thirds of cancer types. Instead, misfortune plays a large part.

According to the study, published in Science and widely reported on in the media, 65% of adult cancers are mainly due to “bad luck,” or random genetic mistakes that occur during the process of cell division in the body.

“All cancers are caused by a combination of bad luck, the environment and heredity, and we’ve created a model that may help quantify how much of these three factors contribute to cancer development,” DrBert Vogelstein of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine said in a media release.

Cell division is constantly happening in the body to replace old cells. Sometimes genetic mutations occur during the process. As might be expected, the risk of mistakes increases with the increased number of cell divisions. Drs Vogelstein and Cristian Tomasetti, analyzed the total number of stem cell divisions in 31 tissue types during an individual’s lifetime, excluding breast and prostate cancers. They estimated that 22 cancer types were a result of genetic mutations occurring during the normal cell division process and could not be avoided. These include leukemia, pancreatic, bone, ovarian and brain cancers.

“If two-thirds of cancer incidence across tissues is explained by random DNA mutations that occur when stem cells divide, then we should focus more resources on finding ways to detect such cancers at early, curable stages.” said Dr. Tomasetti in a report by The Telegraph carried in the National Post.

According to the researchers, other cancers, such as colorectal, skin and lung cancers are heavily influenced by genes and exposure to cancerous agents, such as smoking for lung cancer, UV exposure for skin cancer and poor diet for colorectal cancer.

Does the new finding mean we should abandon our efforts to prevent cancer? Not at all.

“Everything we know about altering lifestyles to prevent cancer from the environmental point of view we absolutely need to continue doing. If anything our finding puts more stress on the need to spend even more money on early detection,”  Dr. Tomasetti told Time magazine.

“About half of all cancers can be prevented through healthy living and healthy public policies,” Gillian Bromfield of the Canadian Cancer Society said in a statement. “We encourage Canadians to lower their risk of cancer by not smoking, eating well, being active, sitting less, maintaining a healthy body weight, limiting alcohol, being safe in the sun and avoiding indoor tanning.”

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24
Oct 2014
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Tricky science made simple, part IV

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Back in June, we announced the release of another StemCellShorts video: “What is a cancer stem cell?” narrated by Dr.

Back in June, we announced the release of another StemCellShorts video: “What is a cancer stem cell?” narrated by Dr. John Dick. Stem Cell Shorts is a series of about-a-minute-long informative videos produced by Ben Paylor, a PhD candidate at the University of British Columbia, and Dr. Mike Long, a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Toronto.

Dr. Dick, senior scientist at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and the McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine, was the first to isolate cancer stem cells — in leukemia in 1994 and in colon cancer in 2007. Recently, he and his team found a way to disarm a gene called BMI-1 that regulates colorectal cancer stem cells.

The new video is co-sponsored by the Canadian Stem Cell Foundation and the Stem Cell Network.

All the videos — including “What is a stem cell?” narrated by Dr. Jim Till, “What are embryonic stem cells?” voiced by Dr. Janet Rossant, “What are induced pluripotent stem cells?” narrated by Dr. Mick Bhatia, and “What is a cancer stem cell?” — are now available on the Foundation’s You Tube channel. Click here to view them.

Another instalment, “What is a retinal stem cell?” narrated by Dr. Derek van der Kooy, will be released soon.

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